What is Induction - Meaning, Objectives, Process and Programs (2023)

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Induction, also known as orientation, is a process of making the new employee familiar with the work environment and the fellow employees.

The new employee can be inducted into the organisation by introducing his job, fellow workers, supervisors and his subordinates. He should be oriented to the new organisation and its policies, rules and regulations.

Induction is a socialising process by which the organisation tries to make the new employee as its agent for the achievement of its aims and objectives while the new individual employee seeks to make the organisation an agency to achieve his personal goals. Induction makes the new employee feel at home and helps him to adjust with the new environment in the organisation.

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According to Michael Armstrong, “Orientation or induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins a company and giving him the basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work”.

Learn about:- 1. Introduction to Induction 2. Meaning of Induction 3. Definitions 4. Concept 5. Objectives 6. Need and Importance 7. Purpose 8. Process 9. Benefits 10. Problem and 11. Program.

What is Induction? Meaning, Definitions, Objectives, Importance, Process, Purpose, Benefits and Programs

Contents:

  1. Introduction to Induction
  2. Meaning of Induction
  3. Definitions of Induction
  4. Concept of Induction
  5. Objectives of Induction
  6. Need and Importance of Induction
  7. Purpose of Induction
  8. Induction Process
  9. Benefits of Induction
  10. Problem of Induction
  11. Induction Program

What is Induction — Introduction

Introducing the new employee who is designated as a probationer to the job, job location, surroundings, organisation, organisational surroundings, and various employees is the final step of employment process. Some of the companies do not lay emphasis on this function as they view that this function will be automatically performed by the colleagues of the new employees.

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This is more so in educational institutions. This process gains more significance as the rate of turnover is high among new employees compared to that among senior employees. This is mainly because of the problem of adjustment and adaptability to the new surroundings and environment. Further absence of information, lack of knowledge about the new environment, cultural gap, behavioural variations, different levels of technology, variations in the requirements of the job and the organisation also disturb the new employee.

Further induction is essential as the newcomer may feel insecure, shy, nervous and disturbed. This situation leads to instability and turnover. Hence, induction plays pivotal role in acquainting the new employee to the new environment, company rules and regulations.

Generally, the newcomer may expect opportunities for advancement, social status and prestige, responsibility, opportunities to use special aptitudes and educational background, challenges and adventure, opportunity to be creative and original and lucrative salary. But jobs with low initial challenge, inadequate feedback, and inadequate performance appraisal result in reality shock. Induction is necessary to reduce reality shock.

“Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins a company and giving him the basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work.”

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Lecture, handbook, film, group seminar are used to impart the information to new employees about the environment of the job and the organisation in order to make the new employee acquaint himself with the following heads- (i) About the company’s history, objectives, policies, procedures, rules and regulations, codes, etc.; (ii) About the department; (iii) About the superiors, subordinates, etc.

(i) About the Company:

(a) History, growth, organisation and management, products, market, customers, etc., of the Company.

(b) Basic conditions of employment — hours of work, shift, holidays, retirement benefits.

(c) Pay, allowances, deductions.

(d) Sickness rules, information — pay — sick leave.

(e) Leave rules — casual, special, earned-holidays, vacation.

(f) Work rules, work-load, use of materials, equipment, and machine.

(g) Disciplinary rules and procedure.

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(h) Grievance procedure.

(i) Career path, promotion channel.

(j) Unions, negotiating machinery.

(k) Education, training and development facilities.

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(I) Health, safety, medical care arrangements.

(m) Canteen and restaurant facilities.

(n) Social benefits and welfare measures.

(o) Telephone calls and correspondence.

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(p) Travelling and subsistence expenses.

(q) Uniforms, clothing.

(r) Various employees — their designations — position in the organisation. In addition to using various routine measures, the personnel manager personally explains, clears doubts and queries of the new employee about the company.

(ii) About the Department:

The departmental head concerned introduces the new employee to the important employees and describes briefly about the department and the job. Then the supervisor concerned introduces the employee to all the employees in the section/unit, describes in detail the job or work, material, machine, equipment with which the worker has to work, process of the production, place of the employee’s job and its significance in the process of production, his position in the departmental organisation structure, work distribution, assignment, working hours, shift, quality/standard to be maintained, customers/ users of the product/service, etc.

(iii) About the Superiors, Subordinates, Etc.:

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a. Introduce the new employee to the superior to whom he should report.

b. Introduce to other superiors with whom his work is indirectly related.

c. Introduce the new employee to his subordinates with whom he has to work.

d. Introduce the new employee to the subordinates who will report to him.

e. Introduce the new employee to his colleagues.

What is Induction — Meaning

The introduction of new employees into an organisation is important and it demands special consideration. There is good evidence that the subject seldom receives the very careful attention that it truly needs by the employing organisation. Analysis of employee turnover statistics show that a higher employee turnover occurs during the first years of employment.

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Undoubtedly a portion of the blame can be given to the faulty recruitment and selection procedures. Equally certainly are the reasons for why so many people leave organisations shortly after joining are connected with the treatment they receive from their employers during the initial phase of employment.

The induction of new employees has to be regarded as comprehensive and systematic programme continuously monitored and evaluated. Too often it has come to mean little more, than a day or two set aside, during which time new employees may have interviews, attend short courses, listen talks about organisation, receive a quantity of literature, be taken on quick guided tours to glimpse the various sections of the organisation and meet a variety of people.

Induction or orientation familiarizes the new employee with the organisation, its mission and goals, culture, systems and procedures and expectations from the employees.

Induction (also known as orientation or indoctrination) is the process of introducing a new employee to the organization, and the organization to the employee by providing him relevant information.

What type of information should be provided to a new employee depends on the organizational practices — whether an organization takes orientation in a formal and comprehensive way or informal and gradual process of learning about the organization over a period of time.

However, a formal orientation is preferable because it tries to bridge the information gap of the new employee. A formal orientation may contain the various types of information.

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Many companies prepare booklets which contain information on the organization, its human resource policies and rules, and employee benefits. These booklets are provided to the new employees at the time of orientation.

Orientation or induction is the process of introducing new employees to an organization, to their specific jobs and departments, and in some instances, to their community. It also marks the beginning of the process by which employees are integrated into the organization.

An orientation program principally conveys 3 types of information, namely:

(a) General information about the daily work routine to be followed

(b) A review of the organization’s history, founders, objectives, operations and products or services, as well as how the employee’s job contributes to the organization’s needs.

(c) A detailed presentation of the organization’s policies, work rules and employee benefits.

What is Induction – Definitions Provided by Flippo and Michael Armstrong

Induction, also known as orientation, is a process of making the new employee familiar with the work environment and the fellow employees. The new employee can be inducted into the organisation by introducing his job, fellow workers, supervisors and his subordinates. He should be oriented to the new organisation and its policies, rules and regulations.

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Really speaking, induction is a socialising process by which the organisation tries to make the new employee as its agent for the achievement of its aims and objectives while the new individual employee seeks to make the organisation an agency to achieve his personal goals. Induction makes the new employee feel at home and helps him to adjust with the new environment in the organisation.

When a new employee joins an organisation, he is completely a stranger to the people of the organisation, work place and the work environment in the organisation. In the absence of any information and support, there is likely to be anxiety and fear in the mind of that new employee.

He is likely to undergo reality shock caused by a gap between his expectations and the real situation in the organisation. Induction or orientation will help him overcome these problems. Once a candidate is selected and placed on a particular job, the process of familiarising him with the job, with the people who work with him and also with the organisation begins. This process is nothing but induction or orientation.

According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Induction is the welcoming process to make the new employee feel at home and generate in him a feeling of belongingness to the organisation”.

According to Michael Armstrong, “Orientation or induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins a company and giving him the basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work”.

What is Induction — Concept

Induction, also called orientation, is designed to provide a new employee with the information she or he needs to function comfortably and effectively in the organisation. A formal definition of orientation is –

“Orientation is planned induction of the employees to their jobs, their co-workers and the organisation.” [Robert and John]

Typically, orientation conveys three types of information:

1. General information about the daily work routine.

2. A review of organisation’s objectives, operations, products and services as well as job content of new employee.

3. A detailed presentation on organisational policies, work rules, employee benefits, etc.

The idea is to make the employee feel at home in the new environment. It is a well-known fact that employees feel anxious on entering an organisation. They worry about how well they will perform in the new job. They feel inadequate when they compare themselves with more experienced employees. Effective orientation programmes reduce anxiety by providing information on job environment, on supervisors, by introducing them to co-workers and encouraging them to ask questions.

In a study the researchers discovered the following about new employees:

1. The first days on the jobs were anxious and disturbing.

2. New employees’ initiation by persons intensified anxiety.

3. Anxiety interfered with training process.

4. Turnover of new hired employee was caused primarily by anxiety.

5. New workers were reluctant to discuss problems with the supervisors.

What is Induction — Objectives

The objectives of Induction are as follows:

1. To welcome the new employee, relieve his anxieties, and make him feel at home.

2. To develop a rapport between the company and the new employee and make him feel part of the organisation as quickly as possible.

3. To inspire the new employee with a good attitude toward the company and his job.

4. To acquaint new employees with company goals, history, management traditions, policies, departments, divisions, products, and physical layouts.

5. To communicate to new employees what is expected of them, their responsibilities, and how they should handle themselves.

6. To present the basic information the employee wants to know: rules and regulations, benefits, payday, procedures, and general practices.

7. To encourage the new employee to have an inquiring mind, show him how to learn, and assist him toward ‘a discipline effort in developing additional knowledge.

8. To provide basic skills, terms, and knowledge of the business world and help the new employee in human relations.

What is Induction — Need and Importance: Reducing Anxiety of New Employees, Reducing Reality Shock, Reduces Employee Turnover and a Few Others

1. Reducing Anxiety of New Employees – An employee’s first impression is the last impressions. If a new employee is made to feel welcome and comfortable in the new environment, particularly by his immediate superior and co-workers his anxiety would reduce and he would have the positive attitude towards the organisation and his job.

2. Reducing Reality Shock – Every employee has some expectations when he joins his new job and when these expectations do not match with the real situation, the employee experiences a reality shock. An effective orientation programme helps in reducing these reality shocks by providing more real expectations to the new employees.

3. Reduces Employee Turnover – If a new employee gets the impression of being unwanted or ineffective he may react to these feelings by resigning. Turnover is generally high during this initial period and the effective orientation in this phase can reduce this costly reaction.

4. Accommodating Employees – The orientation programme helps the new employees to accommodate with the existing employees by developing the understanding on the various aspects relating to the job with which the new employee is expected to confront.

5. Familiarizing the New Employees – Good orientation saves time because the employee would become familiar with his work, supervisor, and coworkers. Explaining the functioning of the organisation and the department during orientation will save the colleagues’ valuable time later in explaining the job.

6. Developing Realistic Expectations – Effective orientation develops realistic expectations by letting the employee know what is expected from him in terms of values, attitudes, work procedures, norms of behaviour and dress code. All organisations have their own set of values, beliefs, code of conduct which expects-their employee to follow. If the new employee learns and imbibes these during orientation it would be much easier for him to incorporate them in his work values.

7. Increases Enthusiasm – Through effective orientation the newcomer is made aware of his job and how his job fits with the total organisation; how he can contribute to the organisational effectiveness and to whom he may look for in case of any problem. This creates more loyalty and enthusiasm in the mind of the newcomer.

What is Induction – Steps involved in the Process

The induction of a new worker is an important aspect of employment. The acceptance of a job implies entrance into a community in which the worker, as a social being, will seek human satisfaction. This satisfaction depends very much upon his being accepted therein.

This is a two-sided process. On the employer’s part, the applicant has to be turned into a worker who is satisfied with his job and environment. On the other hand, a worker has numerous questions in his mind. His doubts and fears need to be clarified. To achieve this dual aim, a defined practice based on experience, imagination and sympathy is needed. It is a mistake to leave the worker to know and clear his doubts on the working site. The prospective worker should have required induction when a job is under discussion or soon after his selection.

A worker may first come into contact with the receptionist or employment exchange officer when he calls at the employment office. How well he is received will affect his attitude to his engagement at the time and during the years of his employment. He will appreciate courtesy in manner, reasonable clarity and orderly arrangements throughout.

When he has been engaged, the employee must be clear about when he is to begin work and to whom he has to report. A written form of engagement containing these particulars avoids misunderstanding. A printed statement describing the ways of the firm and the rules governing the work and the workers should be given to him or explained by someone who is conversant with these rules. A brochure setting out the most pertinent work rules and explaining any important points of conduct, especially where personal safety is concerned, may be printed for this purpose.

A new employee feels insecure, shy, and nervous while joining a new organization. The reason behind their anxiety could be a lack of adequate information about the organization, organizational policies and practices, job, and work procedures. This creates ambiguity in the minds of new candidates and sometimes leads to frustration. For the same reason, induction and orientation are practiced by every organization either formally or informally. Induction provides relevant information to the new employees about the organization by introducing them with old employees and the organizational culture.

Usually, a new employee joins the organization with very high expectations. Proper induction and orientation can help the employees to understand the reality of the situation. This may develop the confidence in the new employees and they may gradually develop positive thinking about the organization.

In large organizations, the HR department formally commences the induction and orientation program. However, in smaller organizations, the immediate superior of the new employees does it. The different aspects of the induction cannot be understood without exactly knowing what induction is.

An induction process should be:

1. Flexible and interesting;

2. Employee centred; and

3. Meets equal opportunities requirements.

Induction process has three goals:

1. Helps new employees settle in;

2. Helps new employees understand their responsibilities and what is expected of them; and

3. Ensures the employer receives the benefit of the new employee as quickly as possible.

An induction process is not simply for new employees. The same benefits can be received by staff who have been promoted or transferred or those who have returned from a long period of absence. Furthermore you should be careful to include against long term temporary staff, who are entitled to the same training and development as permanent staff members. To not do so could harm your organisation and may be considered discriminatory.

The following steps may be identified as the stages of induction process:

i. Reporting for duty at a certain place to the head of the department concerned.

ii. The head of the department welcomes the new employee.

iii. Introduction to the organisational/branch head by the head of the department.

iv. Organisational/branch head introduces to important employees and describes about the organisation.

v. Departmental head introduces to all the employees of the department, describes the department, total work of the department, etc.

vi. Supervisor concerned introduces to his co-workers in that section/unit to the work/job, material, machine.

vii. Providing information about the duties, responsibilities, rights, facilities, provisions, welfare measures, etc.

viii. Supervisor clarifies the doubts of new employee about the work.

What is Induction — Benefits

In some organizations, a formal employee induction program is almost non-existent or, when done, is performed in a haphazard manner. This is unfortunate since there are a number of very practical and cost-effective implications for conducting a well-run program.

Some of the recognized benefits include:

i. Lower turnover, especially new recruit turnover

ii. Increased productivity

iii. Improved employee morale

iv. Lower recruiting and training costs

v. Facilitation of learning

vi. Reduction of the new employee’s anxiety

vii. Induction helps to build up a two-way channel of communication between management and workers.

viii. Proper induction facilitates informal relation and team work among employee.

ix. Effective induction helps to integrate the new employee into the organization and to develop a sense of belonging.

x. Induction helps to develop good relation.

xi. A formal induction program proves that the company is taking interest in getting him off to good start.

xii. Proper induction reduces employee grievances, absenteeism and labour turnover. Induction is helpful in supplying information concerning the organization, the job and employee welfare facilities.

What is Induction – 7 Major Problems: Lack of Training, Large Information, Administrative Work, Initial Job and Other Problems

Following are the problems in the way of effective induction:

1. Lack of Training – The supervisor or immediate boss who provides the orientation to the new comer may not be trained about the methods of orientation or sometime the supervisor may not have the enough time to orient the new comer.

2. Large Information – The new comer is at once provided with the lot of information about the mission, vision, goals, objectives, organisational structure, departments, duties, responsibilities etc. that it becomes difficult for him to understand all such at once.

3. Administrative Work – When an employee joins the firm he has to fulfil many administrative formalities and at the same time he is provided the orientation which increases the pressure in the new comer.

4. Initial Jobs – At the initial stage employee is only provided with the manual jobs that discourages job interest and company loyalty. So, the initial jobs to the new comer influence to a great extent the interest of the employee in the organisation.

5. Trial and Error Induction – Employee is provided with the sketchy induction under the mistaken belief that trial and error method is the best method of induction. This leads to the increase in confusions and complexities in the mind of the new comer.

6. Balance in the Different Levels of Orientation – The new comer is forced to balance between the broad orientation by the HR department and narrow orientation at the department level.

7. Other Problems –

Some of the other problems in the way of effective orientation programme are:

(i) Employee is put to job so soon that his mistake can put the company to loss also.

(ii) Sometimes the newcomers are assigned with the challenging jobs, and their failure can discourage them to perform further.

(iii) Employee can develop wrong perception when he is asked to perform number of small jobs because of the short time span spent on the each job.

What is Induction — Induction Program: Contents, Principles, Merits and Evaluation

The approach to induction and orientation program (or simply induction program) varies depending on the type of industry, organization, and the job position. In small organizations, usually informal induction program is performed. However, in case of large organizations, a formal induction program is conducted that may last for a duration of 2-4 weeks.

The main activities performed during an induction program prior to the placement of new employees to their specific jobs. On completion of the induction program, the HR department may conduct special anxiety reduction seminars to overcome the doubts of new employees and ensure that they have been oriented properly. This is known as the evaluation of the induction program. After this, the new employees are ready to be placed on their jobs.

The generalized induction program starts with the welcoming of the new employees to the organization, which is followed by explaining the new employee about the organization. New recruits are provided with the organization’s manual and shown their new work locations. The next step is to acquaint them with the details of salary, benefits, holidays, and leaves. The information regarding future training opportunities and career prospects is also provided to the new employees.

In addition, the induction program clarifies the doubts of new employees on various issues. Specifically, most of the induction programs consist of three stages. The first stage starts with the general introduction of the employees by the HR department of the organization. It is followed by the introduction to the department and the job, which is presented by the employees’ reporting manager. The last step in this induction program is to conduct the follow up meeting to verify that the purpose of the induction program has been fulfilled successfully.

Contents of Orientation Programme:

Following should be included in the effective orientation programme:

1. Company’s history, philosophy, mission, vision, goals, and operations.

2. Products and services in which the company deals.

3. Organisation structure of the company with details on the authority responsibility relationships.

4. Conditions of employment, salary, pension arrangements, holidays, and sickness rules.

5. Working arrangements in particular, software packages used, reporting relationship and any key facts about the job not yet covered.

6. The system of HR management and especially the arrangements and opportunities for staff development.

7. The whole range of facilities provided for the benefit, welfare, and the recreation of the employees.

8. Catering arrangements, health and safety rules, and what to do if there are any problems.

9. Location of different departments and the employees’ services.

10. Personnel Policies and Strategies

11. Grievance handling procedure

12. Suggestions system

13. Safety Measures

14. Rules and regulations

15. Opportunities for training, promotions, career development, transfer etc.

16. Terms and conditions of service

17. Benefits and services for the employees.

Principles for Effective Orientation Programme:

Orientation programme is beneficial to both i.e., employees as well as organisation. Many organisations do not give due importance to this programme, due to which the wrong image travels in the minds of new comers. This also reduces the effectiveness of the organisation.

Following are the principles for effective orientation programme:

1. Involvement of Top Management:

For each and every human resource management function, involvement and support of top management is necessary. But in case of orientation the role of top management becomes all the more important because the involvement and support of top management in orientation process sends the signal to the new comer that top management values its human resources.

New comers provide more importance to the shaking hands with the executives than to receive folders carrying information about the organization. So top management support is a pre requisite for the successful orientation programme.

2. Preparation for New Employees:

The existing employees should be prepared for the new employees. They should give the warm welcome to the new comers and also their soft behaviour and attitude towards the new comers is necessary for making the new comers feel comfortable in the new environment. There must be someone to receive the newcomers and make them comfortable before the orientation programme.

3. Determination of the Information Need of the New Employees:

The new employee should be provided with which type of information should be determined before the orientation programme. While providing the information at the time of orientation it should be kept in mind that there should not be information overload as the employees go on learning throughout their organisational life.

4. Planning the Presentation of Information:

It should be planned before the orientation programme that who will provide what information to the new comer. It should be taken care that there is no duplication of information and all the relevant information should be provided to the new comer in the sequenced manner.

5. Concluding Session:

Concluding session should be organized at the end of the orientation programme, many companies also call it special anxiety reduction session. In this session the new comers are asked to raise their queries on the different aspects in relation to their job. The main objective of this session is to identify whether the new comers have understood all that was intended.

Merits of Induction Programme:

The induction programme demands time and serious thinking.

It is done in order to enjoy the below mentioned benefits:

i. It enables the new employees to learn their jobs more quickly.

ii. Creates a sense of belongingness and satisfaction in newcomers.

iii. It reduces employee anxiety, fear, nervousness, absenteeism and grievances.

iv. It reduces attrition rate.

v. It facilitates informal communication and public relations.

vi. It enables team building and two-way communication.

vii. It enhances productivity quickly.

viii. To protect the less aware and illiterate employees from mischievous people.

ix. It leads to employee confidence, motivation and morale.

x. It helps the new entrants to overcome reality shock and to get along with others.

Evaluating Induction:

Primary Evaluation – The reaction, learning and behaviour of the inductee and how well these match up to the objectives of the induction.

Secondary Evaluation – The effects of the induction on the organisation in terms of staff retention, attendance, flexibility, equal opportunities, health and safety and customer care.

Induction programmes, as with any training, should be modified according to the results of the evaluation.

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